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Houses and Khaneh-bagh

Houses

Meybod, due to its very old background in its history of organization and establishment، has various types of house with special historical and architectural status.

The oldest examples of the houses, whose plans and volumes are original and untouched, belong to the 14th century A.D. The typical architecture of residential units consists of a compact volume, with a small central yard and high Ivan in the southern Direction which functions as a Badgir (ventilation). In the Northern, Easter and western directions, there is a space like Ivan but in a smaller scale than the main one. The room behind the southern Ivan often has decorations and elaborate embellishments whose entrance is through the same Ivan. The different architecture of houses is influenced by climatic situation, the slope of the Land, accessibility of underground water and the financial situation of the owner. The construction of the yard in the center and rooms around it and the so-called introspection is the main and fixed architecture character of all the houses. The Northern and Southern directions are the best ones for construction. The northern Direction (Pahna), towards the winter sun, is the winter sitting area of the family. In the Southern Direction or “Nesar”, which has its back to the Sun, a high vaulted Ivan and Badgir (ventilation or air-trap) are located which is the family sitting area in summer. The Badgirs of Meybod, except for a few ones, are all one-sided facing the North, because most of the guests of winds are dusty, dry and hot except the northern wind which is known as “Esfahani” wind, cool, humid and pleasant which is cached by the Badgir in the Southern Direction and below to the Central space. The Badgir direction of all the houses toward the North has caused Meybod to have a quiet different perspective. Thus the northern perspective of the city is very different from the Southern, Eastern or Western ones. The western Direction or Springs-seat (Bahar-neshin) has taken a lower percentage of the construction and some second rank-rooms are built in it. The Eastern Direction is the most inappropriate direction for construction, because the hot afternoon sun in summers and the cold morning Shade of Winter make living intolerable; In Meybod houses, these parts are devoted to ‏ servicing area, stores and barns or stables. In the middle of Central yard, the existence of a pond and garden is very effective to humidify and mellow the very hot desert climate. The house is located in the higher part of the city, where the underground water Flows In The far depth from them, are small and humble and belong to lower class people. In the Houses, water is not accessible or access to it is only possible through stairways (rachineh) which sometimes Go 20 meters deep. In the lower parts, there is another type of house known as Godal-baghcheh (garden-ditch) house; in this type, another yard within the center of Yard is built whose floor is 6 meters lower than the central yard and the alley. The depth of the baghcheh Godalog (garden-ditch) depends on the depth of the Qanat which follows under the house; the deeper the water, the deeper and lower the depth of the Baghcheh Godalog (Garden-ditch).

Khaneh-bagh (Garden-Houses)

Khaneh-bagh (Garden-Houses) which are located in the flat part of the city belongs to the gentility and wealthy ones; they are the combination of a house and a garden. The existence of these garden-houses is the result of the current of water under the flat ground. In these parts water is available and thus construction of houses and orchards is possible and easy. Borooni house is one of the remaining examples which belong to mozaffarid era (14th century) ;the name of the Landowner’s family is called Borhani. It is one of the very monuments of Meybod which is located in the out skirts of Bideh in the Toodieh alley and next to the Old Market. We can say that the summit of its flourish has been about 1360 A.D. contemporary with Mozaffarid region in Yazd. One of the idiosyncrasies of Borooni house is its special clay decoration ‏ on the southern Ivan. Investigations indicate that some of the spaces of the house have been added to it later and there are at least three layers of Amendment identified in its central Ivan. Although similar houses of such works exist in Yazd and Meybod, the Brooni house due to very precious clay embellishments is of certain importance. The paneling of the decorations of the central Ivan and the engraved clay designs (which are done in the manner of Mongolian era), the muqarnas of the cruciform room behind the Ivan and it’s paving with the combination of bricks and tiles have given it an outstanding architectural identity. Amin house, which belongs to Segued Ali Emami (the trustee of pistons) of Meybod, is located next to the market and in the Bala quarter of Central Meybod is one of the garden ditch houses with constructions in all four directions. The southern Ivan, with the Badgir (air-trap) behind it, three-door rooms in north, east and west, which are all the architectural principles of this climate, are dominant in this house. In two sites of north and south of garden-ditch, an Ivan has been dug in the heart of the ground, and the pond in the middle of the garden and the trees around it in the parching heart of the Desert have caused a cool and pleasant atmosphere. Due to the carrier of the owner and his associations and relations with people, two rooms, have been built on the second floor which can be entered through a separate stairway. Thus strangers could not get into the private life and private area of the house. There are Windows facing the alley in the second floor.
The Salar house, which is one sample of the houses of gentility, is located in the quarter of Baghshahi (the king’s garden). It’s north-south Direction, the four-side construction ,an Eastern garden, the large Courtyard and the flow of Qanat water through the yard and into the garden and windows with cashmere designs form a house which was worse the living of “Mirza Agha Salar” (one of the Masters of Meybod). The garden in the eastern Direction has changed the place to a lovely atmosphere; the place faces the central yard from one side and the pomegranate orchard from another. This house in 1999 was bought by Meybod governor general and given to Meybod research Centre; after restoration, The Salar Houses was rehabilitated and it’s functions changed to the office of this Centre

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